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Hamaskis
Citadel Miniatures
CitadelMiniaturesLogo
The Citadel Miniatures Logo
Outline
Foundation 1979
Location originally Newark-on-Trent
Industry Miniature wargaming - miniatures manufacture
Key People Bryan Ansell, founder and original chief of Citadel Miniatures


Citadel Miniatures Limited produces metal and plastic miniatures for tabletop wargames such as Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40K. During the 1980s it made a number of licensed products for Fighting Fantasy. Although its models are used for the wargaming hobby, the painting of its miniatures (and miniatures in general) is a hobby in itself.[1]

Early HistoryEdit

Citadel Miniatures was formed as part of the British game company Games Workshop in 1979.[2] Its formation was announced in White Dwarf 11 in early 1979:

Games Workshop and Bryan Ansell have got together to form Citadel Miniatures, a new miniatures company that will be manufacturing several ranges of figures. Ral Partha are already in production, but Citadel will also be producing own ranges, including the Fiend Factory figures, Fantasy Adventurers and Fantasy Specials. Citadel will not be limiting production to SF/F figures, but also new ranges of historical wargaming figure.

The following issue of White Dwarf contained the first advertisement for Citadel's forth coming figures.

Materials and ConstructionEdit

Originally miniatures were produced using a white metal alloy including lead, although in 1987 Citadel began to produce plastic miniatures as well, the first of which being the Fighting Fantasy Heroes miniatures. The plastic miniatures were then advertised under the name "Psychostyrene" and "Drastik Plastik". These were made of a harder plastic than other plastic miniatures at time and allowed for greater detailed sculpting. Citadel has continued to produce white metal miniatures as the economics of plastic make it only suitable for large runs.[3] Some models are a combination of both materials, with the arm-less bodies and heads metal and the arms, weapons and other accessories plastic.[4]

In 1997 Citadel switched to a lead free white metal because of concerns about lead poisoning particularly in children.[5]

Most of the models created by Citadel require some form of construction after purchase. With smaller models this usually involves attaching arms, weapons and the base. Larger models come in many pieces and require more construction.

Links with Fighting FantasyEdit

Main article: Fighting Fantasy Figure

The founders of Fighting Fantasy, Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone, were also the founders of Games Workshop which started Citadel with Brian Ansell. This led to an almost inevitable pooling of resource on some projects.

With the release of The Warlock of Firetop Mountain, came a bookmark advertising the great Warlock of Firetop Mountain Competition. The first prize was "The largest fantasy figure ever produced". This was the 2ft long Imperial Dragon, created and paintd in full colour by world famous designer twins, Michael Perry and Alan Perry for Citadel Miniatures. It was a gravity casting and the moulds didn't last.[6]

  • Fighting Fantasy Figures - These were first advertised in issue 4 of Warlock, which talked of the imminent release of a set of Fighting Fantasy plastic figures. Metal figures were also later advertised but it is doubtful if they were ever released.
    • Plastic Figures - The
      FFFiguresAdvert

      Showing all Figures and Heads available

      miniatures formed part of the Fighting Fantasy Heroes system, along with the Paint set for miniatures and Fighting Fantasy Battlegame (Please see Fighting Fantasy Heroes for more details)
      FiguresHeroesfront

      The Heroes

      FiguresMonstersfront

      The Monsters

      They were released in 1985 and were the first plastic figures ever made by Citadel Miniatures.[7] Each figure came separately in its own blister packaging.
      • Fighting Fantasy Paint Set - This was described as the best way to begin the hobby of painting the miniatures. It was a set containing 10 water-based colours in small sampler pots, and a useful guide "How to Paint your Models" written by renowned fantasy miniatures painter Dave Andrews.
      • Fighting Fantasy Battlegame Rules and Dice - the article described that Citadel Miniatures produced a special dice set for the Fighting Fantasy Miniatures, which includes not only a selection of multisided dice but also a complete set of Battlegame rules for individual combat between adventurers and monsters. The whole set is quite cheap, selling for only £1.25.
    • Metal Figures

Metal figures first seem to be advertised in issue 5, when, along with plastic figures (see above), Citadel Miniatures were said to be working on a boxed range of metal figures modelled straight from the illustrations in the Gamebooks. The first three were to be The Warlock of Firetop Mountain, The Citadel of Chaos and The Forest of Doom.

  • The Warlock of Firetop Mountain Figures
1989CatalogueGWsmall

The 6 figures available

Citadel Miniatures did make plastic figures for The Warlock of Firetop Mountain boardgame. These came with the game, and they did manufacture and sell them separately, as advertised in the 1989 Catalogue, for 75p for a set of 6.[8]

  • The Warlock Figure
TheWarlockWhiteDwarf82Advert

The Warlock Figure from an advert in White Dwarf 82

In issue 7 a competition was run to paint what you thought the eponymous Warlock of Warlock magazine looked like. The winner was Alexis Panayiotou, and his entry was converted into the cover of issue 10 by John Blanche. The entry was also converted into a Citadel Miniature and was available via an order form found in White Dwarf Issue 82[9]

When the book Casket of Souls was published there was a competition whereby once the reader had defeated "the dread Bone Demon by uncovering the spell hidden in [the] pages [of the book]" the reader could send their answer on a postcard to "Department Sallazar" at Penguin Books. The winner of the competition would win the original golden Casket of Souls model, hand sculpted by Citadel Miniatures directly from the artwork of Iain McCaig. [10].

Other Model RangesEdit

From 1979 to 1984 Citadel had a reciprocal distribution and manufacturing deal with Ral Partha to bring each others products to Britain and North America respectively.[11]

Citadel has also produced and distributed miniatures under other names:

  • Chronicle Miniatures was a competitor bought out by Citadel and they continued to operate under that name for a time.
  • Iron Claw Miniatures were a range of miniatures designed, manufactured and distributed by Citadel in 1987 and 1988. Many of the designs were later incorporated into the main Citadel range.
  • Marauder Miniatures was a separate company set up by two former Games Workshop/Citadel sculptors (Ally and Trish Morrison) in 1988 and promoted alongside Citadel Miniatures in White Dwarf. The miniatures were cast and distributed by Citadel, and the company was absorbed into Citadel in 1993.

Over the years, as well as producing their own original miniatures, they have produced licenced ranges based on characters from games, movies, TV and books. These included figures based on RuneQuest, Judge Dredd, Doctor Who, Paranoia, Eternal Champion, Dungeons and Dragons, Advanced Dungeons and Dragons, Traveller, Star Trek, Lone Wolf and The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit. Games Workshop re-won the Lord of the Rings licence, allowing them to make the The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game miniatures to tie-in with the trilogy of films released by New Line Cinema, and have extended the range to include characters based on the actual writings of J. R. R. Tolkien.

Citadel Miniatures sometimes release limited edition models of specific or unusual characters, such as Thrud the Barbarian,[12]Ian Livingstone[13], drunken Space Marines dressed in Christmas outfits [1] and several representing a white-bearded dwarf, the logo of White Dwarf magazine[2][3].

Along with the standard range of miniature soldiers, Citadel's lines include fantasy based war-machines, like catapults and chariots, and when Warhammer 40,000 came out, Citadel Miniatures also branched out into vehicles, such as the Land Raider and Rhino transports for Space Marines.

See AlsoEdit

External LinksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. McVey, Mike, Citadel Miniatures Painting Guide, (Games Workshop: 1992), p1
  2. Games Workshop Investor history page
  3. Masterson, Sean, From Sprue to You, White Dwarf, Issue 97, pp6-7 (Games Workshop: January 1988)
  4. McVey, Mike, Citadel Miniatures Painting Guide, (Games Workshop: 1992), p6
  5. Lead Advisory Service News Volume 1 No 1 reprinting New Lead Free Metal Miniatures from White Dwarf
  6. The Citadel Imperial Dragon from Stuff of Legends
  7. 25th Anniversary Edition of The Warlock of Firetop Mountain
  8. Price List from Stuff of Legends
  9. Stuff of Legends - LE 15 - Chaos Amazonette and Warlock
  10. Casket of Souls, inside cover of UK editions (both Penguin Books and Oxford University Press editions)
  11. Stuff of Legends - Ral Partha History
  12. Four versions of Thrud have been produced according to LE19 - Thrudd and Female Admirer Another example is LE104 - Thrudd (Scratching Head)
  13. Priestley, Rick (et al) The Second Citadel Compediuam, p.45

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